CBD is believed to have neuroprotective effects due to the way it interacts with CB2 receptors in the brain. CBD acts on these receptors by creating an anti-inflammatory response in the brain's immune cells. This reduces the amount of damage caused by inflammation in the brain. In conclusion, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that CBD modulates brain activity and connectivity in neural systems relevant to psychosis and anxiety, possibly reflecting the therapeutic effects of CBD.
Future studies should consider replicating the findings and expanding the inclusion of psychiatric patients, combining long-term CBD treatment with neuroimaging evaluations. CBD appears to have numerous potential benefits for brain health. Improving concentration, relieving anxiety and reducing inflammation are just a few of the ways in which the cannabinoid could strengthen the brain. The anti-inflammatory and anxiolytic effects of CBD can be attributed in part to its inhibition of adenosine reuptake.
By delaying the reuptake of this neurotransmitter, CBD increases adenosine levels in the brain, which regulates the activity of adenosine receptors. A1A and A2A adenosine receptors play an important role in cardiovascular function, regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow. These receptors have extensive anti-inflammatory effects throughout the body. Scientists have also observed that its anti-inflammatory properties can make CBD an effective treatment for skin conditions such as acne.
The nodes that have a higher degree of centrality in the CBD group have been colored red, while the nodes that have a higher degree of centrality in the vehicle group have been colored blue. A linear comparison between the three groups (patients who received CBD, patients who received placebo and control subjects who did not receive any drug) revealed several groups in which CBD showed intermediate activation compared to the placebo group and the healthy control group. However, it is necessary to further study the underlying molecular mechanisms that explain the relationship between CBD and other neurotransmitters. CBD also acts through several receptor-independent pathways, for example, delaying the “reuptake” of endogenous neurotransmitters (such as anandamide and adenosine) and increasing or inhibiting the binding action of certain G-protein-coupled receptors.
The CBD-induced decrease in ARAS activity is consistent with emerging literature that suggests that CBD reduces autonomous arousal under conditions of emotional and physical stress. However, neither the distribution of CB1, 5HT1a, TRPV1 or NAPE-PLD, alone or together, can explain the lack of response of large parts of the brain to CBD or the polarization of the BOLD signal. Although conversations about cannabis are often related to the intoxicating effects of its most abundant element, tetrahydrocannabinol, better known as THC, CBD does not cause intoxication. The hypothesis that CBD could be affecting endocannabinoid signaling through NAPE-PLD is purely speculative, but given the unique pattern of global brain activity caused by CBD treatment, it may warrant research and has far-reaching implications.
Indiana University scientists have demonstrated that CBD can inhibit this problematic flow of sodium, reducing and minimizing seizures. In this sense, CBD also showed opposite effects compared to THC during the resting state and several cognitive paradigms in healthy volunteers. However, CBD interferes with this process by reducing the access of anandamide to FABP transport molecules and delaying the passage of endocannabinoids into the cell. Some CBD products may be better for treating insomnia (especially those that contain higher amounts of myrcene and linalool), while others are designed to help people with anxiety and depression (where terpenes such as limonene may be more useful).
Several studies have used imaging to characterize the acute effect of CBD on brain activity in humans. First, since all the studies included in the current review examined the acute effects of CBD administration, future research should focus on the long-term treatment of patients with a psychiatric disorder with CBD, in combination with neuroimaging evaluations, in order to elucidate the neural substrates that underlie the therapeutic effects of CBD. .